The role of mental disorders in precision medicine for diabetes: a narrative review

Kremers, Sanne H. M.; Wild, Sarah H.; Elders, Petra J. M.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Campbell, David J. T.; Pouwer, Frans; Lindekilde, Nanna; de Wit, Maartje; Lloyd, Cathy and Rutters, Femke (2022). The role of mental disorders in precision medicine for diabetes: a narrative review. Diabetologia (Early access).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-022-05738-x

Abstract

This narrative review aims to examine the value of addressing mental disorders as part of the care of people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in terms of four components of precision medicine. First, we review the empirical literature on the role of common mental disorders in the development and outcomes of diabetes (precision prevention and prognostics). We then review interventions that can address mental disorders in individuals with diabetes or at risk of diabetes (precision treatment) and highlight recent studies that have used novel methods to individualise interventions, in person and through applications, based on mental disorders. Additionally, we discuss the use of detailed assessment of mental disorders using, for example, mobile health technologies (precision monitoring). Finally, we discuss future directions in research and practice and challenges to addressing mental disorders as a factor in precision medicine for diabetes. This review shows that several mental disorders are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and its complications, while there is suggestive evidence indicating that treating some mental disorders could contribute to the prevention of diabetes and improve diabetes outcomes. Using technologically enabled solutions to identify mental disorders could help individuals who stand to benefit from particular treatments. However, there are considerable gaps in knowledge and several challenges to be met before we can stratify treatment recommendations based on mental disorders. Overall, this review demonstrates that addressing mental disorders as a facet of precision medicine could have considerable value for routine diabetes care and has the potential to improve diabetes outcomes.

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