The long and short non-coding RNAs modulating EZH2 signaling in cancer

Mirzaei, Sepideh; Gholami, Mohammad Hossein; Hushmandi, Kiavash; Hashemi, Farid; Zabolian, Amirhossein; Canadas, Israel; Zarrabi, Ali; Nabavi, Noushin; Aref, Amir Reza; Crea, Francesco; Wang, Yuzhuo; Ashrafizadeh, Milad and Kumar, Alan Prem (2022). The long and short non-coding RNAs modulating EZH2 signaling in cancer. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 15(1), article no. 18.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13045-022-01235-1

Abstract

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a large family of RNA molecules with no capability in encoding proteins. However, they participate in developmental and biological processes and their abnormal expression affects cancer progression. These RNA molecules can function as upstream mediators of different signaling pathways and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is among them. Briefly, EZH2 belongs to PRCs family and can exert functional roles in cells due to its methyltransferase activity. EZH2 affects gene expression via inducing H3K27me3. In the present review, our aim is to provide a mechanistic discussion of ncRNAs role in regulating EZH2 expression in different cancers. MiRNAs can dually induce/inhibit EZH2 in cancer cells to affect downstream targets such as Wnt, STAT3 and EMT. Furthermore, miRNAs can regulate therapy response of cancer cells via affecting EZH2 signaling. It is noteworthy that EZH2 can reduce miRNA expression by binding to promoter and exerting its methyltransferase activity. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) are synthetic, short ncRNAs capable of reducing EZH2 expression and suppressing cancer progression. LncRNAs mainly regulate EZH2 expression via targeting miRNAs. Furthermore, lncRNAs induce EZH2 by modulating miRNA expression. Circular RNAs (CircRNAs), like lncRNAs, affect EZH2 expression via targeting miRNAs. These areas are discussed in the present review with a focus on molecular pathways leading to clinical translation.

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