Mitigating Cutting-Induced Plasticity Errors in the Determination of Residual Stress at Cold Expanded Holes Using the Contour Method

Kim, H.K.; Carlson, S. S.; Stanfield, M. L.; Paddea, Sanjooram; Hosseinzadeh, F. and Bouchard, P. J. (2021). Mitigating Cutting-Induced Plasticity Errors in the Determination of Residual Stress at Cold Expanded Holes Using the Contour Method. Experimental Mechanics (Early access).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-021-00756-z

Abstract

Background
The split sleeve cold expansion process is widely used to improve the fatigue life of fastener holes in the civil and military aircraft industry. The process introduces beneficial compressive residual stresses around the processed hole, but uncertainties remain about the character of the stress field immediately adjacent to the bore of the hole.

Objective
The primary objective of this study was to implement the contour method with minimising error associated with cutting-induced plasticity to provide detailed and reliable characterisation of the residual stress introduced by the split sleeve cold expansion process.

Methods
A systematic FE study of plasticity effects by simulating different contour cutting strategies (a single cut, two sequential cuts and a 6-cut sequence) for a cold expanded hole in an aluminium alloy coupon was conducted. The identified ‘optimum’ cutting strategy was then applied experimentally on coupons containing a hole that had been processed to 3.16% applied expansion.

Results
The FE study of different cutting simulations show that the locations of the stress error is consistent with the location where cutting-induced plasticity accumulated and that the magnitude and locations of stress re-distribution plasticity can be controlled by an optimised cutting strategy. In order to validate this hypothesis a high quality contour measurement was performed, showing that accurate near bore stress results can be achieved by the proposed 6-cut approach that controls cutting induced plasticity.

Conclusions
The present work has demonstrated that detailed FE simulation analysis can be a very effective tool in supporting the development of an optimum cutting sequence and in making correct choices of boundary conditions. Through optimizing these key aspects of the cutting sequence one is much more likely to have a successful, low error contour residual stress result.

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