Cadmium isotope fractionation reveals genetic variation in Cd uptake and translocation by Theobroma cacao and role of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 5 and heavy metal ATPase-family transporters

Moore, Rebekah E. T.; Ullah, Ihsan; de Oliveira, Vinicius H.; Hammond, Samantha J.; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Tibbett, Mark; Dunwell, Jim M. and Rehkämper, Mark (2020). Cadmium isotope fractionation reveals genetic variation in Cd uptake and translocation by Theobroma cacao and role of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 5 and heavy metal ATPase-family transporters. Horticulture research, 7(1), article no. 71.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0292-6

Abstract

In response to new European Union regulations, studies are underway to mitigate accumulation of toxic cadmium (Cd) in cacao (Theobroma cacao, Tc). This study advances such research with Cd isotope analyses of 19 genetically diverse cacao clones and yeast transformed to express cacao natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP5) and heavy metal ATPases (HMAs). The plants were enriched in light Cd isotopes relative to the hydroponic solution with Δ114/110Cdtot-sol = -0.22 ± 0.08‰. Leaves show a systematic enrichment of isotopically heavy Cd relative to total plants, in accord with closed-system isotope fractionation of Δ 114/110Cdseq-mob   = -0.13‰, by sequestering isotopically light Cd in roots/stems and mobilisation of remaining Cd to leaves. The findings demonstrate that (i) transfer of Cd between roots and leaves is primarily unidirectional; (ii) different clones utilise similar pathways for Cd sequestration, which differ from those of other studied plants; (iii) clones differ in their efficiency of Cd sequestration. Transgenic yeast that expresses TcNRAMP5 (T. cacao natural resistance-associated macrophage gene) had isotopically lighter Cd than did cacao. This suggests that NRAMP5 transporters constitute an important pathway for uptake of Cd by cacao. Cd isotope signatures of transgenic yeast expressing HMA-family proteins suggest that they may contribute to Cd sequestration. The data are the first to record isotope fractionation induced by transporter proteins in vivo.

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  • Item ORO ID
  • 77538
  • Item Type
  • Journal Item
  • ISSN
  • 2662-6810
  • Project Funding Details
  • Funded Project NameProject IDFunding Body
    Not SetST/P003257/1STFC (Science & Technology Facilities Council)
    Not Set4070200262STFC (Science & Technology Facilities Council)
  • Academic Unit or School
  • Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
  • Copyright Holders
  • © 2020 The Authors
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