Prediction model for best focus, power, and spherical aberration of the cornea: Raytracing on a large dataset of OCT data

Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra; Weisensee, Johannes; Wendelstein, Jascha; Cayless, Alan; Menapace, Rupert and Hoffmann, Peter (2021). Prediction model for best focus, power, and spherical aberration of the cornea: Raytracing on a large dataset of OCT data. PLOS ONE, 16(2), article no. e0247048.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247048

Abstract

Purpose
To analyse corneal power based on a large optical coherence tomography dataset using raytracing, and to evaluate corneal power with respect to the corneal front apex plane for different definitions of best focus.

Methods
A large OCT dataset (10,218 eyes of 8,430 patients) from the Casia 2 (Tomey, Japan) was post-processed in MATLAB (MathWorks, USA). Using radius of curvature, corneal front and back surface asphericity, central corneal thickness, and pupil size (aperture) a bundle of rays was traced through the cornea. Various best focus definitions were tested: a) minimum wavefront error, b) root mean squared ray scatter, c) mean absolute ray scatter, and d) total spot diameter. All 4 target optimisation criteria were tested with each best focus plane. With the best-fit keratometer index the difference of corneal power and keratometric power was evaluated using a multivariate linear model.

Results
The mean corneal powers for a/b/c/d were 43.02±1.61/42.92±1.58/42.91±1.58/42.94±1.59 dpt respectively. The root mean squared deviations of corneal power from keratometric power (nK = 1.3317/1.3309/1.3308/1.3311 for a/b/c/d) were 0.308/0.185/0.171/0.209 dpt. With the multivariate linear model the respective RMS error was reduced to 0.110/0.052/0.043/0.065 dpt (R² = 0.872/0.921/0.935/0.904).

Conclusions
Raytracing improves on linear Gaussian optics by considering the asphericity of both refracting surfaces and using Snell’s law of refraction in preference to paraxial simplifications. However, there is no unique definition of best focus, and therefore the calculated corneal power varies depending on the definition of best focus. The multivariate linear model enabled more precise estimation of corneal power compared to the simple keratometer equation.

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