The Open UniversitySkip to content

Anxiety and non-anxiety in a distance language learning environment: The distance factor as a modifying influence

Hurd, Stella (2007). Anxiety and non-anxiety in a distance language learning environment: The distance factor as a modifying influence. System, 35 pp. 487–508.

Full text available as:
PDF (Proof) - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Download (471kB)
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link:
Google Scholar: Look up in Google Scholar


Foreign language anxiety in classroom-based language learning has a long history of research, but
there are fewer studies examining this particular phenomenon with respect to the distance language
learner. The isolated context and the physical absence of tutor and peers suggest that FL anxiety
might be intensified in a distance setting. A longitudinal study using questionnaires, think-aloud protocols
and one-to-one telephone interviews with students enrolled on a distance lower-intermediate
French course at The Open University (UK) set out to test this hypothesis and to explore the nature
of language anxiety in a distance learning environment and the strategies students use to cope with it.
The findings indicated that although there were areas in which distance language learners shared
aspects of anxiety with face-to-face learners, the distance factor could be causally linked to some
marked differences with regard to the nature and extent of language anxiety. Moreover, there was
evidence that the distance language learning setting may be associated with absence of anxiety for
some learners, a finding that merits further investigation.
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2007 Elsevier Ltd.
ISSN: 0346-251X
Extra Information: This publication also appears in a 2 volume PhD thesis of published work -
'Second language learning at a distance: Metacognition, affect, learning strategies and learner support in relation to the development of autonomy.'

See Volume 1: Introduction to the published work and Volume 2: Submitted publications.
Keywords: Distance language learning; Affect; Language anxiety; Strategies
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Wellbeing, Education and Language Studies (WELS) > Languages and Applied Linguistics
Faculty of Wellbeing, Education and Language Studies (WELS)
Research Group: Centre for Research in Education and Educational Technology (CREET)
Item ID: 6866
Depositing User: ORO Import
Date Deposited: 19 Dec 2007
Last Modified: 02 May 2018 12:43
Share this page:


Altmetrics from Altmetric

Citations from Dimensions

Download history for this item

These details should be considered as only a guide to the number of downloads performed manually. Algorithmic methods have been applied in an attempt to remove automated downloads from the displayed statistics but no guarantee can be made as to the accuracy of the figures.

Actions (login may be required)

Policies | Disclaimer

© The Open University   contact the OU