Validation of the Polish version of WHO-5 as a screening instrument for depression in adults with diabetes

Cichon, Ewelina; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kokoszka, Andrzej; Gondek, Tomasz; Rajba, Beata; Lloyd, Cathy and Sartorius, Norman (2020). Validation of the Polish version of WHO-5 as a screening instrument for depression in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 159, article no. 107970.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107970

Abstract

Aims
The aim of this study was to validate and report the factorial analysis of the World Health Organization’s 5-item Well-being Index (WHO-5) among outpatients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the psychometric properties of the WHO-5 and its suitability for identifying potential depressive symptoms in Polish adults with diabetes.
Methods
Participants were randomly chosen among Polish diabetes outpatients and invited to participate in the cross-sectional study (N = 216). Participants completed the Polish version of the WHO-5, Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire.
Results
Factor analyses identified the one-factor structure of the Polish version of the WHO-5. The internal consistency of the Polish version of the WHO-5 is satisfying. With regard to convergent validity, there were significant negative associations between the WHO-5 and PAID, the PHQ-9, HbA1c and the amount of medical complications. The AUC indicates that the WHO-5 is an effective measure for identifying depressive symptoms. The optimal cut off values of ≤12 yielded the best sensitivity/specificity trade-off for identifying depression among people with diabetes.
Conclusions
The Polish version of the WHO-5 is a reliable, valid outcome measure for outpatients with type 2 diabetes and can be a useful instrument for screening for depression in people with diabetes.

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