Narukulla, Raman; Shuker, David E.G. and Xu, Yao-Zhong
Post-synthetic and site-specific modification of endocyclic nitrogen atoms of purines in DNA and its potential for biological and structural studies.
Nucleic Acids Research, 33(6) pp. 1767–1778.
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Site-specific modification of the N1-position of purine was explored at the nucleoside and oligomer levels. 2'-Deoxyinosine was converted into an N1-2,4-dinitrophenyl derivative 2 that was readily transformed to the desired N1-substituted 2'-deoxyinosine analogues. This approach was used to develop a post-synthetic method for the modification of the endocyclic N1-position of purine at the oligomer level. The phosphoramidite monomer of N1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2'-deoxyinosine 9 was prepared from 2'-deoxyinosine in four steps and incorporated into oligomers using an automated DNA synthesizer. The modified base, N1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-hypoxanthine, in synthesized oligomers, upon treatment with respective agents, was converted into corresponding N1-substituted hypoxanthines, including N1-15N-hypoxanthine, N1-methylhypoxanthine and N1-(2-aminoethyl)-hypoxanthine. These modified oligomers can be easily separated and high purity oligomers obtained. Melting curve studies show the oligomer containing N1-methylhypoxanthine or N1-(2-aminoethyl)-hypoxanthine has a reduced thermostability with no particular pairing preference to either cytosine or thymine. The developed method could be adapted for the preparation of oligomers containing mutagenic N1-ß-hydroxyalkyl-hypoxanthines and the availability of the rare base-modified oligomers should offer novel tools for biological and structural studies.
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