Marco, J; Gracia, M; Gancedo, R; Gautier, J and Berry, Frank
(2001). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of spinel-related oxides.
In: Pandalai, S ed.
Recent research developments in inorganic and organometallic chemistry, Volume 1.
Trivandrum: Research Signpost, pp. 45–60.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to characterise the chemical compositions and properties of cations in the surface of different compounds with spinel-related structure. The oxidation states of different cations and the surface cation ratio have been determined. In some of the systems the surface cation distribution does not resemble the cation distribution of the bulk as a result of surface enrichment by one of the cations, the existence of surface defective sites, or the presence of hydroxyl groups. The mechanisms of charge balance which occur when highly charged cations are incorporated within compounds with spinel-related structures have also been investigated.
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