Schirmer, S.G; Solomon, A.I. and Leahy, J.V.
Degrees of controllability for quantum systems and application to atomic systems.
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, 35(18) pp. 4125–4141.
Precise definitions for different degrees of controllability for quantum systems are given, and necessary and sufficient conditions for each type of controllability are discussed. The results are applied to determine the degree of controllability for various atomic systems with degenerate energy levels and transition frequencies
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