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Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Following Severe Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Vietnam

Sabanathan, Saraswathy (2016). Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Following Severe Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Vietnam. PhD thesis The Open University.

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Abstract

In 2011, more than 160 children died in an unprecedented outbreak of Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Vietnam, predominantly associated with enterovirus 71 (EV-A71). The occurrence of encephalitis outbreaks in children at vulnerable developmental stages raised concerns of long-term consequences. Limited retrospective outcome studies in the literature lack either a healthy comparison group or a locally validated neurodevelopmental assessment tool. Brain MRI retrospective observations identified stereotypical patterns of brainstem lesions predominantly in severe EV-A71 HFMD cases with conflicting opinions on the prognostic role of MRI. I adapted the “Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition)” for Vietnam and demonstrated that the adaptation was reliable and valid. I conducted a prospective observational cohort study to test the hypothesis that children with severe HFMD, graded per Vietnam Ministry of Health classification, would have lower cognitive, language and motor Z scores than a healthy comparison group. All HFMD cases had virological samples taken and a sample of severe HFMD cases had brain MRI scans. All Z score 95% confidence intervals were within 2 standard deviations of the comparative healthy cohort mean suggesting outcomes at six months were not significantly lower than the healthy comparative group. I identified novel nonspecific brain white matter abnormalities on MRI in all severity grades, lower motor Z scores in grade 2b children with MRI abnormalities and that Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) was significantly associated with MRI abnormalities. These findings support surveillance of all enteroviruses during HFMD outbreaks and suggest MRI may be predictive of motor impairment in a subset of severe HFMD cases. No significant impairment was identified at six months follow-up, but more complex developmental skills are yet to emerge. Hence the study continues for an eighteen-month follow up to robustly determine emergence of long-term sequelae.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Copyright Holders: 2016 The Author
Keywords: Biological sciences; Social sciences; Health and environmental sciences; Developmental delays; Vietnam; Epidemiology; Southeast Asia
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Life, Health and Chemical Sciences
Associated Research Centre: Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Vietnam
Item ID: 61300
Depositing User: ORO Import
Date Deposited: 20 May 2019 09:02
Last Modified: 21 May 2019 03:49
URI: http://oro.open.ac.uk/id/eprint/61300
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