Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis; Martin, Francisco and Berry, Frank
Electrochemical reaction of lithium with nanosized vanadium antimonate.
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 179(8) pp. 2554–2561.
Nanometric vanadium antimonate, VSbO4, was prepared by mechanical milling from Sb2O3 and V2O5 and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mossbaüer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Its reactivity towards lithium was examined by testing Li/VSbO4 cells under galvanostatic and potentiostatic regimes. The amount of Li inserted was found to be consistent with a two-step process involving the reactions (i) VSbO4+8 Li→Sb+V+4 Li2O and (ii) Sb+3 Li→Li3Sb, the former being virtually irreversible and the latter reversible as suggested by the shape of the anodic and cathodic curves. Ex situ XPS measurements of the discharged and charged electrode provided direct evidence of the formation of alloyed Sb and confirmed the results of the potentiostatic curves regarding the irreversible or reversible character of the previous reactions. The Li/VSbO4 cell exhibited acceptable electrochemical performance, which surpassed that of other Sb-based compounds as the likely result of the formation of V and its associated enhanced electrode conductivity.
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