Gallium-assisted diffusion bonding of stainless steel to titanium; microstructural evolution and bond strength

Shirzadi, Amir A.; Laik, Arijit; Tewari, Raghvendra; Orsborn, Jonathan and Dey, Gautam K. (2018). Gallium-assisted diffusion bonding of stainless steel to titanium; microstructural evolution and bond strength. Materialia, 4 pp. 115–126.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2018.09.009

Abstract

Strong joints between stainless steel 304L and pure titanium (grade-2) were made using the novel method of “gallium-assisted diffusion bonding”. The microstructural evolution and interfacial reactions were investigated in detail. The possible mechanisms of phase changes at the joint interface when bonding with and without a nickel interlayer were identified. Layers of FeTi and (Fe,Cr)2Ti intermetallic compounds were found at the reaction zone in the case of direct bonding, whereas (Fe,Ni)Ti and Fe2Ti phases were identified in the reaction zone of the samples bonded using nickel interlayers. A layer of αFe was observed on the steel side of the reaction zone in both the cases, probably due to the enrichment of Cr at the interface. The diffusion of gallium led to formation of a layer of αTi, while the diffusion of Fe and Ni assisted in the formation of a duplex (α+β)Ti phase in the inter-diffusion zone. The joints fractured along the intermetallic layers at the interface, during tensile testing, with limited ductility. The maximum tensile strengths of the bonded samples were 280 and 313 MPa with and without nickel interlayer, respectively. The latter equals 92% of the tensile strength of the pure grade-2 titanium used in this work (i.e. 340 MPa).

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