Poulton, A. S.; Andrews, B.; Hettinga, D. and Paton, R.
FES rowing after spinal cord injury.
In: Proceedings of the XVIth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, 29 Jun - 1 July 2006, Turin, Italy.
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted indoor rowing provides exercise for adults with spinal cord injury, promoting cardiovascular fitness and the development of muscle mass in all extremities. Modifications to a standard rowing machine provide mechanical stabilisation for the trunk while constraining the legs to move in a sagittal plane over the correct range of motion. Bi-phasic pulses applied through surface electrodes stimulate the quadriceps muscles during the drive phase of rowing. The hamstrings, gastrocnemius and pretibial muscles are stimulated during the recovery phase. Stimulation is controlled so as to maximise power output without causing excessive fatigue. The technique may be acquired in a few sessions and has been demonstrated competitively.
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