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Soft X-ray radiation damage in EM-CCDs used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

Gopinath, D.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Keelan, J.; Hall, D.; Holland, K. and Colebrook, D. (2018). Soft X-ray radiation damage in EM-CCDs used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering. Journal of Instrumentation, 13(2), article no. C02027.

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DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/13/02/C02027
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Abstract

Advancement in synchrotron and free electron laser facilities means that X-ray beams with higher intensity than ever before are being created. The high brilliance of the X-ray beam, as well as the ability to use a range of X-ray energies, means that they can be used in a wide range of applications. One such application is Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS).

RIXS uses the intense and tuneable X-ray beams in order to investigate the electronic structure of materials. The photons are focused onto a sample material and the scattered X-ray beam is diffracted off a high resolution grating to disperse the X-ray energies onto a position sensitive detector. Whilst several factors affect the total system energy resolution, the performance of RIXS experiments can be limited by the spatial resolution of the detector used. Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EM-CCDs) at high gain in combination with centroiding of the photon charge cloud across several detector pixels can lead to sub-pixel spatial resolution of 2–3 μm.

X-ray radiation can cause damage to CCDs through ionisation damage resulting in increases in dark current and/or a shift in flat band voltage. Understanding the effect of radiation damage on EM-CCDs is important in order to predict lifetime as well as the change in performance over time. Two CCD-97s were taken to PTB at BESSY II and irradiated with large doses of soft X-rays in order to probe the front and back surfaces of the device. The dark current was shown to decay over time with two different exponential components to it.

This paper will discuss the use of EM-CCDs for readout of RIXS spectrometers, and limitations on spatial resolution, together with any limitations on instrument use which may arise from X-ray-induced radiation damage.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab
ISSN: 1748-0221
Extra Information: Proceeding from the 11th International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors: 3–8 September 2017, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK.
Keywords: radiation damage to detector materials (solid state); x-ray detectors; spectrometers
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Physical Sciences
Research Group: Centre for Electronic Imaging (CEI)
Item ID: 54510
Depositing User: David Hall
Date Deposited: 17 Apr 2018 10:33
Last Modified: 02 May 2019 00:24
URI: http://oro.open.ac.uk/id/eprint/54510
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