The relevance of α-KLOTHO to the central nervous system: Some key questions

Cararo-Lopes, Marina Minto; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique Yokoyama; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko and Berwick, Daniel Charles (2017). The relevance of α-KLOTHO to the central nervous system: Some key questions. Ageing Research Reviews, 36 pp. 137–148.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2017.03.003

Abstract

α-Klotho is well described as an anti-aging protein, with critical roles in kidney function as a transmembrane co-receptor for FGF23, and as a soluble factor in serum. α-Klotho is also expressed in the choroid plexus, where it is released into the cerebrospinal fluid. Nonetheless, α-Klotho is also expressed in the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidence indicates that this pool of α-Klotho, which we define as brain α-Klotho, may play important roles as a neuroprotective factor and in promoting myelination, thereby supporting healthy brain aging. Here we summarize what is known about brain α-Klotho before focusing on the outstanding scientific questions related to its function. We believe there is a need for in vitro studies designed to distinguish between brain α-Klotho and other pools of α-Klotho, and for a greater understanding of the basic function of soluble α-Klotho. The mechanism by which the human KL-VS variant affects cognition also requires further elucidation. To help address these questions we suggest some experimental approaches that other laboratories might consider. In short, we hope to stimulate fresh ideas and encourage new research approaches that will allow the importance of α-Klotho for the aging brain to become clear.

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