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The analysis of 2 x 1 and 2 x 2 contingency tables: an historical review.

Richardson, John T. E. (1994). The analysis of 2 x 1 and 2 x 2 contingency tables: an historical review. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 3(2) pp. 107–133.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link: https://doi.org/10.1177/096228029400300202
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Abstract

This paper describes the historical development of analytic techniques for frequency data presented as 2 x 1 or 2 x 2 contingency tables. The issues raised include: the need for a continuity correction when estimating the exceedance probability of a discrete statistic; the vulnerability of such statistics to a conservative bias when used in hypothesis testing; and the different statistical models that may underlie contingency tables. In the case of 2 x 1 contingency tables the recommended technique is the binomial test with a modified decision procedure for hypothesis testing. In the case of 2 x 2 contingency tables there is a single statistic approximating the chi-square distribution which can be used to test the hypothesis of an association between the two relevant variables and which in most practical situations is robust with respect to the occurrence of small expected cell frequencies.

Item Type: Journal Item
ISSN: 1477-0334
Academic Unit/School: Learning and Teaching Innovation (LTI) > Institute of Educational Technology (IET)
Learning and Teaching Innovation (LTI)
Research Group: Centre for Research in Education and Educational Technology (CREET)
Item ID: 49903
Depositing User: John T. E. Richardson
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2017 15:25
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2018 10:53
URI: http://oro.open.ac.uk/id/eprint/49903
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