Use of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction for evaluation of residual stresses in a 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy Variable-Polarity Plasma-Arc weld

Ganguly, S.; Fitzpatrick, M.E. and Edwards, L. (2006). Use of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction for evaluation of residual stresses in a 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy Variable-Polarity Plasma-Arc weld. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 37(2) pp. 411–420.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-006-0012-3

URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tmsasm/mmta/...

Abstract

The residual stress fields associated with variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welds in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy plates have been measured nondestructively using neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction allows in-depth measurements of the full strain tensor to be made in thick components; synchrotron X-rays allow for rapid measurements of strains inside components, although their penetration is less than that of the neutrons and constraints arising from the diffraction geometry generally lead to only two strain components being easily measurable. Hence, a combination of the two techniques, applied as described herein, is ideal for a detailed nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses in plates. The residual stresses in a 12-mm-thick VPPA-welded aluminum 2024-T351 alloy plate have been measured using neutron diffraction. The stresses were then remeasured by a combination of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction after the plate had been reduced in thickness (or, skimmed) to 7 mm by machining both sides of the weld, mimicking the likely manufacturing operation, should such welds be used in aerospace structures. A strong tensile residual stress field was measured in the longitudinal direction, parallel to the weld, in both the as-welded and skimmed specimens. There was only a slight modification of the residual stress state on skimming.

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