The Open UniversitySkip to content

Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Confirmation Bias Levels of Software Engineers

Calikli, Gul and Bener, Ayse (2015). Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Confirmation Bias Levels of Software Engineers. Software Quality Journal, 23(4) pp. 695–722.

Full text available as:
PDF (Accepted Manuscript) - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Download (483kB) | Preview
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link:
Google Scholar: Look up in Google Scholar


Confirmation bias is defined as the tendency of people to seek evidence that verifies a hypothesis rather than seeking evidence to falsify it. Due to the confirmation bias, defects may be introduced in a software product during requirements analysis, design, implementation and/or testing phases. For instance, testers may exhibit confirmatory behavior in the form of a tendency to make the code run rather than employing a strategic approach to make it fail. As a result, most of the defects that have been introduced in the earlier phases of software development may be overlooked leading to an increase in software defect density. In this paper, we quantify confirmation bias levels in terms of a single derived metric. However, the main focus of this paper is the analysis of factors affecting confirmation bias levels of software engineers. Identification of these factors can guide project managers to circumvent negative effects of confirmation bias, as well as providing guidance for the recruitment and effective allocation of software engineers. In this empirical study, we observed low confirmation bias levels among participants with logical reasoning and hypothesis testing skills.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York
ISSN: 1573-1367
Keywords: confirmation bias; human factors; software psychology
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Computing and Communications
Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
Item ID: 45015
Depositing User: Gul Calikli
Date Deposited: 21 Dec 2015 13:59
Last Modified: 08 May 2019 16:24
Share this page:


Altmetrics from Altmetric

Citations from Dimensions

Download history for this item

These details should be considered as only a guide to the number of downloads performed manually. Algorithmic methods have been applied in an attempt to remove automated downloads from the displayed statistics but no guarantee can be made as to the accuracy of the figures.

Actions (login may be required)

Policies | Disclaimer

© The Open University   contact the OU