(2003). Transport energy and emissions: urban public transport.
In: Hensher, David and Button, Kenneth eds.
Handbook of transport and the environment, 4.
Handbooks in Transport.
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 247–262.
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This chapter explores how to measure energy and emissions from urban transport. It then provides information to make a comparison between energy use and CO2 emissions for urban travel by car, train, tram and bus. A substantial difference is noted between the figures for peak and off-peak travel, associated with patterns of vehicle loadings. The chapter concludes with a discussion on how energy efficiency can be improved and the need to shift from a vehicle to a systems level to fully evaluate policy options.
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