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Thermally controlled growth of carbon onions within porous graphitic carbon-detonation nanodiamond monolithic composites

Duffy, E.; He, X.; Nesterenko, E. P.; Brabazon, D.; Dey, A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nesterenkoa, P. N. and Paul, B. (2015). Thermally controlled growth of carbon onions within porous graphitic carbon-detonation nanodiamond monolithic composites. RSC Advances, 5(29) pp. 22906–22915.

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Unique porous carbon monoliths containing thermally annealed carbon onions, were prepared from a resorcinol formaldehyde precursor rod, containing silica gel acting as a hard template, detonation nanodiamond, and Fe3+ as a graphitisation catalyst. Detonation nanodiamond was converted to carbon onions during controlled pyrolysis under N2, where the temperature cycle reached a maximum of 1250 °C. Thermal characterisation and high resolution electron microscopy have confirmed the graphitisation of nanodiamond, and revealed the resulting quasi-spherical carbon onions with an average particle size of 5.24 nm. The bimodal porous composite contains both macropores (5 μm) and mesopores (10 nm), with a BET surface area of 214 m2 g-1 for a nanodiamond prepared monolith (0.012 wt% nanodiamond in the precursor mixture), approximately twice that of blank monoliths, formed without the addition of nanodiamond, thus providing a new approach to increase surface area of such porous carbon rods. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also confirmed an enhanced graphitisation of the monolithic carbon skeleton resulting from the elevated thermal conductivity of the added nanodiamond. TEM imaging has confirmed the nanodiamond remains intact following pyrolysis at temperatures up to 900 °C.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry
ISSN: 2046-2069
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Engineering and Innovation
Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
Item ID: 42516
Depositing User: Satheesh Krishnamurthy
Date Deposited: 17 Apr 2015 10:06
Last Modified: 20 Apr 2019 16:10
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