Evaluation datasets for Twitter sentiment analysis: a survey and a new dataset, the STS-Gold

Saif, Hassan; Fernández, Miriam; He, Yulan and Alani, Harith (2013). Evaluation datasets for Twitter sentiment analysis: a survey and a new dataset, the STS-Gold. In: 1st Interantional Workshop on Emotion and Sentiment in Social and Expressive Media: Approaches and Perspectives from AI (ESSEM 2013), 3 Dec 2013, Turin, Italy.

URL: http://www.di.unito.it/~patti/essem13/index.html

Abstract

Sentiment analysis over Twitter offers organisations and individuals a fast and effective way to monitor the publics' feelings towards them and their competitors. To assess the performance of sentiment analysis methods over Twitter a small set of evaluation datasets have been released in the last few years. In this paper we present an overview of eight publicly available and manually annotated evaluation datasets for Twitter sentiment analysis. Based on this review, we show that a common limitation of most of these datasets, when assessing sentiment analysis at target (entity) level, is the lack of distinctive sentiment annotations among the tweets and the entities contained in them. For example, the tweet "I love iPhone, but I hate iPad" can be annotated with a mixed sentiment label, but the entity iPhone within this tweet should be annotated with a positive sentiment label. Aiming to overcome this limitation, and to complement current evaluation datasets, we present STS-Gold, a new evaluation dataset where tweets and targets (entities) are annotated individually and therefore may present different sentiment labels. This paper also provides a comparative study of the various datasets along several dimensions including: total number of tweets, vocabulary size and sparsity. We also investigate the pair-wise correlation among these dimensions as well as their correlations to the sentiment classification performance on different datasets.

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