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Development and cross-national validation of the Emotional Effort Scale (EEF)

Quiñones-García, Cristina; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Clarke, Nicholas and Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo (2013). Development and cross-national validation of the Emotional Effort Scale (EEF). Psicothema, 25(3) pp. 363–369.

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Background: Researchers defi ne Emotional Labour (EL) as the effort associated with meeting the emotional requirements of the job, yet nobody has ever directly tested this effort. Building on classic stress and ego depletion theory, this study develops the Emotional Effort Scale (EEF). Methods: In Study 1, exploratory (N = 197) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 182) were conducted with a British sample. In Study 2, the instrument was adapted to Spanish and measurement invariance was tested (N = 304). In Study 3, (N = 185), we tested convergent and divergent validity with the EL strategies (i.e., surface acting and deep acting) and the relationship between EEF and emotional exhaustion. Results: The final scale is a two-dimensional measure (explicit and implicit emotional effort) with good reliability levels in all samples (N = 818). Additionally, it shows adequate convergent, divergent and nomological validity. Conclusions: The Emotional Effort construct adds unique value to the literature. Thus, explicit effort seems to be the mechanism that explains the association between EL and exhaustion. Additionally, this study adapts and translates the measure to two of the most used languages in the world, enabling the emergence of cross-national studies in the field of emotions at work.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2013 Psicothema
ISSN: 1886-144X
Keywords: emotional labour; surface acting; emotional effort; emotional exhaustion; instrumental study
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Business and Law (FBL) > Business > Department for People and Organisations
Faculty of Business and Law (FBL) > Business
Faculty of Business and Law (FBL)
Item ID: 39964
Depositing User: Cristina Quinones
Date Deposited: 23 Apr 2014 15:14
Last Modified: 26 Sep 2019 22:53
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