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High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite

Hernandez, Yenny; Nicolosi, Valeria; Lotya, Mustafa; Blighe, Fiona M.; Sun, Zhenyu; De, Sukanta; McGovern, I. T.; Holland, Brendan; Byrne, Michele; Gun'ko, Yurii K.; Boland, John J.; Niraj, Peter; Duesberg, Georg; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Goodhue, Robbie; Hutchison, John; Scardaci, Vittirio; Ferrari, Andrea C. and Coleman, Jonathan N. (2008). High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. Nature Nanotechnology, 3(9) pp. 563–568.

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URL: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0...
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link: https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.215
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Abstract

Fully exploiting the properties of graphene will require a method for the mass production of this remarkable material. Two main routes are possible: large-scale growth or large-scale exfoliation. Here, we demonstrate graphene dispersions with concentrations up to ~0.01 mg m1-1, produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone. This is possible because the energy required to exfoliate graphene is balanced by the solvent -graphene interaction for solvents whose surface energies match that of graphene. We confirm the presence of individual graphene sheets by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Our method results in a monolayer yield of ~1 wt%, which could potentially be improved to 7–12 wt% with further processing. The absence of defects or oxides is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. We are able to produce semi-transparent conducting films and conducting composites. Solution processing of graphene opens up a range of potential large-area applications, from device and sensor fabrication to liquid-phase chemistry.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited
ISSN: 1748-3395
Project Funding Details:
Funded Project NameProject IDFunding Body
Not SetNot SetCentre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices and Science Foundation Ireland
Not SetNot SetLeverhulme Trust
Not SetNot SetRoyal Society
Extra Information: cited By (since 1996) 756
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Engineering and Innovation
Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
Item ID: 39789
Depositing User: Satheesh Krishnamurthy
Date Deposited: 27 Mar 2014 12:27
Last Modified: 24 Mar 2017 06:49
URI: http://oro.open.ac.uk/id/eprint/39789
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