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Estimation of ash injection in the atmosphere by basaltic volcanic plumes: the case of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption

Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Ferrucci, F.; Martet, M.; Hirn, B. and Husson, P. (2011). Estimation of ash injection in the atmosphere by basaltic volcanic plumes: the case of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(B9), article no. B00C02.

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DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link: https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008297
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Abstract

During explosive eruptions, volcanic plumes inject ash into the atmosphere and may severely affect air traffic, as illustrated by the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Quantitative estimates of ash injection can be deduced from the height reached by the volcanic plume on the basis of scaling laws inferred from models of powerful Plinian plumes. In less explosive basaltic eruptions, there is a partitioning of the magma influx between the atmospheric plume and an effusive lava flow on the ground. We link the height reached by the volcanic plume with the rate of ash injection in the atmosphere via a refined plume model that (1) includes a recently developed variable entrainment law and (2) accounts for mass partitioning between ground flow and plume. We compute the time evolution of the rate of injection of ash into the atmosphere for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption on the basis of satellite thermal images and plume heights and use the dispersion model of the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center of Toulouse to translate these numbers into hazard maps. The classical Plinian model would have overestimated ash injection by about 20% relative to the refined estimate, which does not jeopardize risk assessment. This small error was linked to effective fragmentation by intense interactions of magma with water derived from melting of ice and hence strong mass partitioning into the plume. For a less well fragmented basaltic dry eruption, the error may reach 1 order of magnitude and hence undermine the prediction of ash dispersion, which demonstrates the need to monitor both plume heights and ground flows during an explosive eruption.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2011 The American Geophysical Union
ISSN: 0148-0227
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Environment, Earth and Ecosystem Sciences
Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
Item ID: 38755
Depositing User: Astrid Peterkin
Date Deposited: 15 Oct 2013 15:34
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2018 12:12
URI: http://oro.open.ac.uk/id/eprint/38755
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