Second order swarm intelligence

Ramos, Vitorino; Rodrigues, David and Louçã, Jorge (2013). Second order swarm intelligence. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8073 pp. 411–420.



An artificial Ant Colony System (ACS) algorithm to solve general-purpose combinatorial Optimization Problems (COP) that extends previous AC models [21] by the inclusion of a negative pheromone, is here described. Several Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) were used as benchmark. We show that by using two different sets of pheromones, a second-order co-evolved compromise between positive and negative feedbacks achieves better results than single positive feedback systems. The algorithm was tested against known NP-complete combinatorial Optimization Problems, running on symmetrical TSP's. We show that the new algorithm compares favourably against these benchmarks, accordingly to recent biological findings by Robinson [26,27], and Gruter [28] where "No entry" signals and negative feedback allows a colony to quickly reallocate the majority of its foragers to superior food patches. This is the first time an extended ACS algorithm is implemented with these successful characteristics.

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  • Item ORO ID
  • 38706
  • Item Type
  • Journal Item
  • ISSN
  • 0302-9743
  • Extra Information
  • Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems
    8th International Conference, HAIS 2013,
    Salamanca, Spain, September 11-13, 2013.
    Editors: Jeng-Shyang Pan, Marios M. Polycarpou, Michał Woźniak, André C. P. L. F. de Carvalho, Héctor Quintián, Emilio Corchado
    ISBN: 978-3-642-40845-8
  • Keywords
  • self-organization; stigmergy; co-evolution; swarm intelligence; dynamic optimization; foraging; cooperative learning; combinatorial optimization problems; symmetrical traveling salesman problems (TSP)
  • Academic Unit or School
  • Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Engineering and Innovation
    Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
  • Copyright Holders
  • © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
  • Depositing User
  • David Rodrigues