The Open UniversitySkip to content

Field independence: Reviewing the evidence

Evans, Carol; Richardson, John T. E. and Waring, Michael (2013). Field independence: Reviewing the evidence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83 pp. 210–224.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link:
Google Scholar: Look up in Google Scholar


Background. The construct of field independence (FI) remains one of the most widely cited notions in research on cognitive style and on learning and instruction more generally. However, a great deal of confusion continues to exist around the definition of FI, its measurement and the interpretation of research results, all of which have served to limit our understanding and practice in education.
Aims. This paper reviews research evidence on FI and highlights key issues to frame a more informed agenda for future research.
Arguments. Caution needs to be exercised over the interpretation of the evidence around FI and field dependence (FD). In tests measuring FI only, it is inappropriate to use the term FD. FI is clearly correlated with measures of spatial ability however, whether FI is just a measure of perceptual and more specifically spatial ability is a matter of debate. Furthermore, whether FI is just a cognitive ability or a cognitive style is not the central issue, as both can be developed. FI has a significant relationship with aspects of working memory and with other variables. It is especially important in the management and interpretation of complex cognitive tasks.
Conclusions. FI has an important role to play in the navigation of the complex and information-rich learning environments of the 21st century. It is therefore important to move beyond the present narrow focus on FI as a style or trait by acknowledging, embracing and exploring the complexity of the interaction between individual and contextual variables.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2013 The British Psychological Society
ISSN: 0007-0998
Academic Unit/School: Learning and Teaching Innovation (LTI) > Institute of Educational Technology (IET)
Learning and Teaching Innovation (LTI)
Research Group: Centre for Research in Education and Educational Technology (CREET)
Item ID: 36899
Depositing User: John T. E. Richardson
Date Deposited: 02 May 2013 08:13
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2018 10:14
Share this page:


Altmetrics from Altmetric

Citations from Dimensions

Actions (login may be required)

Policies | Disclaimer

© The Open University   contact the OU