Londos, C. A.; Aliprantis, D.; Sgourou, E. N.; Chroneos, A. and Pochet, P.
Formation and evolution of oxygen-vacancy clusters in lead and tin doped silicon.
Journal of Applied Physics, 111(12), article no. 123508.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements were used to investigate the effect of lead (Pb), tin (Sn), and (Pb, Sn) codoping on electron radiation-induced defects in silicon (Si). The study was mainly focused on oxygen-vacancy (VOn) clusters and in particular their formation and evolution upon annealing. It was determined that Pb causes a larger reduction in the production of the VO defect than Sn. In (Pb, Sn) co-doped Si isochronal anneals revealed that the evolution of VO increases substantially at similar to 170 degrees C. This is attributed to the release of V from the SnV pair. Interestingly, in the corresponding evolution curves of VO in the Sn- and the Pb-doped samples, this inverse annealing stage is also present for the former while it is not present for the latter. This is attributed to the formation of PbV pairs that do not dissociate below 280 degrees C. The partial capture of V by Sn in co-doped samples is rationalized through the higher compressive local strain around Pb atoms that leads to a retardation of vacancy diffusion. The conversion of VO to the VO2 defect is substantially reduced in the Pb-doped sample. The evolution curves of VO and VO2 clusters in the isovalent doped Si samples hint the production of VO2 from other mechanisms (i.e., besides VO + O-i -> VO2). For larger VOn clusters (n = 3,4), the signals are very weak in the Pb-doped sample, whereas for n >= 5, they are not present in the spectra. Conversely, bands related with the VO5 and VOnCs defects are present in the spectra of the Sn-doped and (Pb, Sn) codoped Si.
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