Impurity diffusion, point defect engineering, and surface/interface passivation in germanium

Chroneos, A.; Schwingenschlögl, U. and Dimoulas, A. (2012). Impurity diffusion, point defect engineering, and surface/interface passivation in germanium. Annalen der Physik, 524(3-4) pp. 123–132.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.201100246

Abstract

In recent years germanium has been emerging as a mainstream material that could have important applications in the microelectronics industry. The principle aim of this study is to review investigations of the diffusion of technologically important p- and n-type dopants as well as surface and interface passivation issues in germanium. The diffusion of impurities in germanium is interrelated to the formation of clusters whenever possible, and possibilities for point defect engineering are discussed in view of recent results. The importance of electrically active defects on the Ge surface and interfaces is addressed considering strategies to suppress them and to passivate the surfaces/interfaces, bearing in mind their importance for advanced devices.

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