Chroneos, A.; Londos, C. A. and Sgourou, E. N.
Effect of tin doping on oxygen- and carbon-related defects in Czochralski silicon.
Journal of Applied Physics, 110(9), article no. 093507.
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Experimental and theoretical techniques are used to investigate the impact of tin doping on the formation and the thermal stability of oxygen- and carbon-related defects in electron-irradiated Czochralski silicon. The results verify previous reports that Sn doping reduces the formation of the VO defect and suppresses its conversion to the VO2 defect. Within experimental accuracy, a small delay in the growth of the VO2 defect is observed. Regarding carbon-related defects, it is determined that Sn doping leads to a reduction in the formation of the CiOi, CiCs, and CiOi(SiI) defects although an increase in their thermal stability is observed. The impact of strain induced in the lattice by the larger tin substitutional atoms, as well as their association with intrinsic defects and carbon impurities, can be considered as an explanation to account for the above observations. The density functional theory calculations are used to study the interaction of tin with lattice vacancies and oxygen- and carbon-related clusters. Both experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that tin co-doping is an efficient defect engineering strategy to suppress detrimental effects because of the presence of oxygen- and carbon-related defect clusters in devices.
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