Chroneos, Alexander; Londos, C. A. and Bracht, H.
A-centers and isovalent impurities in germanium: density functional theory calculations.
Materials Science and Engineering B, 176(5) pp. 453–457.
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In the present study density functional theory calculations have been used to calculate the binding energies of clusters formed between lattice vacancies, oxygen and isovalent atoms in germanium. In particular we concentrated on the prediction of binding energies of A-centers or oxygen interstitials that are at nearest and next nearest neighbor sites to isovalent impurities (carbon, silicon and tin) in germanium. The A-center is an oxygen interstitial atom near a lattice vacancy and is an important impurity-defect pair in germanium. In germanium doped with carbon or silicon, we calculated that most of the binding energy of the cluster formed between A-centers and the carbon or silicon atoms is due to the interaction between the oxygen interstitial atom and the carbon or silicon atoms. For tin-doped germanium most of the binding energy is due to the interaction of the oversized tin atom and the lattice vacancy, which essentially provide space for tin to relax. The nearest neighbor carbon-oxygen interstitial and the silicon-oxygen interstitial pairs are significantly bound, whereas the tin-oxygen interstitial pairs are not. The results are discussed in view of analogous investigations in isovalently doped silicon.
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