Tutt, James H.; Holland, Andrew D.; Murray, Neil J.; Hall, David J.; Harriss, Richard D.; Clarke, Andrew and Evagora, Anthony M.
The noise performance of electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices at soft X-ray energy values.
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 59(8) pp. 2192–2198.
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The use of electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (CCDs) for high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy has been proposed in previous studies, and the analysis that followed experimentally identified and verified a modified Fano factor for X-ray detection using an 55Fe X-ray source. However, further experiments with soft X-rays at 1000 eV were less successful, attributed to excessive split events. More recently, through the use of deep-depletion e2v CCD220 and on-chip binning, it has been possible to greatly reduce the number of split events, allowing the result for the modified Fano factor at soft X-ray energy values to be verified. This paper looks at the earlier attempt to verify the modified Fano factor at 1000 eV with e2v CCD97 and shows the issues created by splitting of the charge cloud between pixels. It then compares these earlier results with new data collected using e2v CCD220, investigating how split-event reduction allows the modified Fano factor to be verified for low-energy X-rays.
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