The Open UniversitySkip to content


Kale, Dinar (2012). India. In: Amann, Edmund and Cantwell, John eds. Innovative firms in emerging market countries, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 148–191.

Full text available as:
Full text not publicly available (Accepted Manuscript)
Due to publisher licensing restrictions, this file is not available for public download
Click here to request a copy from the OU Author.
Google Scholar: Look up in Google Scholar


India presents an interesting example of a country with immense economic potential, cultural diversity, and income inequality within its population. Over the years the Indian economic policy framework has moved from a state directed model to a market-dominated export-oriented economy. This chapter presents case studies of the Indian pharmaceutical and automobile industries. They show, within this shifting policy context, how firm-level technological capabilities have evolved. The case studies also show the key role of managerial vision, the influence of MNC firms, linkages to knowledge sources outside firms,and the entrepreneurial facility with which Indian firms have moved from imitators to innovators. In the case of pharmaceuticals, much of the innovation has been “behind the frontier,” yet it has resulted in a rapidly expanding,internationalizing sector catering to customers at the “bottom of the pyramid.”

Item Type: Book Section
Copyright Holders: 2012 Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0-19-964600-7, 978-0-19-964600-5
Keywords: India; automotive; pharmaceutical; knowledge; innovation; capabilities; policy
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (FASS) > Social Sciences and Global Studies > Development
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (FASS) > Social Sciences and Global Studies
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (FASS)
Research Group: Innovation, Knowledge & Development research centre (IKD)
Institute for Innovation Generation in the Life Sciences (Innogen)
Related URLs:
Item ID: 34266
Depositing User: Dinar Kale
Date Deposited: 01 Oct 2012 09:30
Last Modified: 06 Aug 2019 08:40
Share this page:

Actions (login may be required)

Policies | Disclaimer

© The Open University   contact the OU