Gower, John C. and Albers, Casper J.
Journal of Classification, 28(3) pp. 315–326.
In canonical analysis with more variables than samples, it is shown that, as well as the usual canonical means in the range-space of the within-groups dispersion matrix, canonical means may be defined in its null space. In the range space we have the usual Mahalanobis metric; in the null space explicit expressions are given and interpreted for a new metric.
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