Designerly ways of knowing: design discipline versus design science

Cross, Nigel (2001). Designerly ways of knowing: design discipline versus design science. Design Issues, 17(3) pp. 49–55.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/074793601750357196

Abstract

The paper begins with a brief review of the historical concerns with the relationship between design and science, and seeks to clarify three different interpretations of this concern: (a) scientific design, (b) design science, and (c) a science of design. The paper then develops the view of 'design as a discipline', based upon a science of design. This discipline seeks to develop domain-independent approaches to theory and research in design. The underlying axiom of this discipline is that there are forms of knowledge peculiar to the awareness and ability of a designer, independent of the professional domain of design practice. The final part of the paper suggests the ways in which this discipline of design, and the understanding of designerly ways of knowing, is pursued through design research.

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