Lyapunov exponent for small particles in smooth one-dimensional flows.
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, 44(4) 045502.
This paper discusses the Lyapunov exponent λ for small particles in a spatially and temporally smooth flow in one dimension. The Lyapunov exponent is obtained as a series expansion in the Stokes number, St, which is a dimensionless measure of the importance of inertial effects. The approach described here can be extended to calculations of the Lyapunov exponents and of the correlation dimension for inertial particles in higher dimensions. It is shown that there is a correction to this theory which arises because the particles do not sample the velocity field ergodically. Using this non-ergodic correction, it is found that (contrary to expectations) the first-order term in the expansion of λ does not vanish.
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