Nouwen, A.; Winkley, K.; Twisk, J.; Lloyd, C. E.; Peyrot, M.; Ismail, K. and Pouwer, F.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Aims/hypothesis. A recent meta-analysis showed that depression is a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes, yet depression may also occur as a consequence of having diabetes and/or its complications. This study examined the latter association by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on this topic.
Methods. EMBASE, Medline and PsycInfo were searched for articles published up to July 2008. All studies that examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes and the onset of depression were included. Pooled relative risks were calculated using fixed and random effects models.
Results. Eight studies met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Based on the pooled data, including 35,008 cases of type 2 diabetes without depression at baseline, the pooled relative risk was 1.16 (95% CI 1.01 – 1.23) for the fixed effects model and 1.20 (95% CI 1.08 – 1.34) for the random effects model.
Conclusions/interpretation. Patients with type 2 diabetes have a 20% increased risk of developing depression. The mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unclear and warrant further research.
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