Parkinson, I. J.; Pearce, J. A.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Johnson, K. T. M. and Ingram, G.
Trace element geochemistry of peridotites from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Forearc, Leg 125.
Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 125 pp. 487–506.
Trace element analyses (first-series transition elements, Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, and REE) were carried out on whole rocks and minerals from 10 peridotite samples from both Conical Seamount in the Mariana forearc and Torishima Forearc Seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc using a combination of XRF, ID-MS, ICP-MS, and ion microprobe. The concentrations of incompatible trace elements are generally low, reflecting the highly residual nature of the peridotites and their low clinopyroxene content (<2%). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show extreme U shapes with (La/Sm)n ratios in the range of 5.03-250.0 and (Sm/Ybn ratios in the range of 0.05-0.25; several samples show possible small positive Eu anomalies. LREE enrichment is common to both seamounts, although the peridotites from Conical Seamount have higher (La/Ce)n ratios on extended chondrite-normalized plots, in which both REEs and other trace elements are organized according to their incompatibility with respect to a harzburgitic mantle. Comparison with abyssal peridotite patterns suggests that the LREEs, Rb, Nb, Sr, Sm, and Eu are all enriched in the Leg 125 peridotites, but Ti and the HREEs exhibit no obvious enrichment. The peridotites also give positive anomalies for Zr and Sr relative to their neighboring REEs. Covariation diagrams based on clinopyroxene data show that Ti and the HREEs plot on an extension of an abyssal peridotite trend to more residual compositions. However, the LREEs, Rb, Sr, Sm, and Eu are displaced off this trend toward higher values, suggesting that these elements were introduced during an enrichment event. The axis of dispersion on these plots further suggests that enrichment took place during or after melting and thus was not a characteristic of the lithosphere before subduction.
Compared with boninites sampled from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc, the peridotites are significantly more enriched in LREEs. Modeling of the melting process indicates that if they represent the most depleted residues of the melting events that generated forearc boninites they must have experienced subsolidus enrichment in these elements, as well as in Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Sm, and Eu. The lack of any correlation with the degree of serpentinization suggests that low-temperature fluids were not the prime cause of enrichment. The enrichment in the high-field-strength elements also suggests that at least some of this enrichment may have involved melts rather than aqueous fluids. Moreover, the presence of the hydrous minerals magnesio-hornblende and tremolite and the common resorption of orthopyroxene indicate that this high-temperature peridotite-fluid interaction may have taken place in a water-rich environment in the forearc following the melting event that produced the boninites. The peridotites from Leg 125 may therefore contain a record of an important flux of elements into the mantle wedge during the initial formation of forearc lithosphere. Ophiolitic peridotites with these characteristics have not yet been reported, perhaps because the precise equivalents to the serpentinite seamounts have not been analyzed.
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