On parity vectors of Latin squares

Donovan, D. M.; Grannell, M. J.; Griggs, T. S. and Lefevre, J. G. (2010). On parity vectors of Latin squares. Graphs and Combinatorics, 26(5) pp. 673–684.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00373-010-0942-9

Abstract

The parity vectors of two Latin squares of the same side n provide a necessary condition for the two squares to be biembeddable in an orientable surface. We investigate constraints on the parity vector of a Latin square resulting from structural properties of the square, and show how the parity vector of a direct product may be obtained from the parity vectors of the constituent factors. Parity vectors for Cayley tables of all Abelian groups, some non-Abelian groups, Steiner quasigroups and Steiner loops are determined. Finally, we give a lower bound on the number of main classes of Latin squares of side n that admit no self-embeddings.

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