Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding

Hosein, Anesa; Aczel, James; Clow, Doug and Richardson, John T. E. (2008). Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 32), 17-21 Jul 2008, Morelia, Mexico.

Abstract

Three mathematical software types: black-box (no steps shown), glass-box (steps shown) and open-box (interactive steps) were used by 32 students to solve conceptual and procedural tasks on the computer via remote observation. Comparison of the three software types suggests that there is no difference in the scores that students receive for conceptual understanding tasks. Students using the black-box are more likely to explore answers than students using the glass and open-box software.

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