'Against all cruelty', the Humanitarian League 1891-1919.
History Workshop Journal, 38(1) pp. 86–105.
An assessment of the Humanitarian League: Part I sketches the foundation of the League and the basis of its ideas, which were reactions to Darwin and to mid-century Christian orthodoxy. Part II is an outline of the League's structure, and Part III an analysis of the ways in which the League, in order to promote the broad goal of Humanitarianism, worked within conventional perimeters, by lobbying the influential for specific changes and highlighting individual cases and individual solutions to the general social malaise that it discerned.
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