Himmelstein, Matthew W.; Boogaard, Peter J.; Cadet, Jean; Farmer, Peter B.; Kim, James H.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Persaud, Rudranath and Shuker, David E. G.
Creating context for the use of DNA adduct data in cancer risk assessment: II. Overview of methods of identification and quantitation of DNA damage.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 39(8) pp. 679–694.
The formation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts can have important and adverse consequences for cellular and whole organism function. Available methods for identification of DNA damage and quantification of adducts are reviewed. Analyses can be performed on various samples including tissues, isolated cells, and intact or hydrolyzed (digested) DNA from a variety of biological samples of interest for monitoring in humans. Sensitivity and specificity are considered key factors for selecting the type of method for assessing DNA perturbation. The amount of DNA needed for analysis is dependent upon the method and ranges widely, from <1 μg to 3 mg. The methods discussed include the Comet assay, the ligation-mediated polymerase reaction, histochemical and immunologic methods, radiolabeled (14C- and 3H-) binding, 32P-postlabeling, and methods dependent on gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by electron capture, electrochemical detection, single or tandem mass spectrometry, or accelerator mass spectrometry. Sensitivity is ranked, and ranges from ~1 adduct in 104 to 1012 nucleotides. A brief overview of oxidatively generated DNA damage is also presented. Assay limitations are discussed along with issues that may have impact on the reliability of results, such as sample collection, processing, and storage. Although certain methodologies are mature, improving technology will continue to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of adduct analysis. Because limited guidance and recommendations exist for adduct analysis, this effort supports the HESI Committee goal of developing a framework for use of DNA adduct data in risk assessment.
||DNA adduct data; cancer risk assessment
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