Knobloch, Henri; Schroedl, Wieland; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark and Reinhold, Petra
Electronic nose responses and acute phase proteins correlate in blood using a bovine respiratory infection.
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 144(1) pp. 81–87.
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This study aimed (i) to assess the ability of electronic nose (e-nose) technology to differentiate between blood samples of experimentally infected and non-infected subjects, and (ii) to evaluate e-nose responses given by volatile organic compounds in relation to the acute phase reaction generated in the host. In an animal model of gram-negative bacterial infection (20 calves; intratracheal inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica A1), the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs; i.e. lipopolysaccharide binding protein and haptoglobin) were measured in serum samples before and after challenge, and headspaces of pre- and post-inoculation serum samples were analysed using a conducting polymer based e-nose. Significant changes of certain e-nose sensor responses allowed discrimination between samples before and after challenge. The maximal changes in responses of sensitive e-nose sensors corresponded to the peak of clinical signs. Significant correlations linked decreasing responses of multiple e-nose sensors to increasing concentrations of APPs in the peripheral blood.
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