The Open UniversitySkip to content

Surface activation for low temperature wafer fusion bonding by radicals produced in an oxygen discharge

Kowal, J.; Nixon, T.; Aitken, N. and Braithwaite, N. St. J. (2009). Surface activation for low temperature wafer fusion bonding by radicals produced in an oxygen discharge. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 155(1) pp. 145–151.

Full text available as:
PDF (Accepted Manuscript) - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Download (956Kb)
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link:
Google Scholar: Look up in Google Scholar


A new method of exposing silicon/semiconductor wafers to a mixture of radicals is described, in which these species are generated in an oxygen-rich gas discharge confined between a concentric pair of annular mesh electrodes surrounding the wafers. This approach allows the wafer surfaces to be treated without damage from the energetic ions, strong electric fields, and high UV fluxes associated with direct treatment by exposure to gas discharge plasmas. The process is compared with direct oxygen plasma activation for its latitude with respect to treatment duration, effect on wafer surface roughness and bond strength. Wider process latitude and reduced surface roughening are obtained for treatment by radicals compared with direct plasma exposure. Comparative analysis of treated and untreated silicon surfaces by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that traces of fluorine present on the wafer surface before treatment are removed with great efficiency by the process.

Item Type: Journal Article
Copyright Holders: 2009 Elsevier B.V.
ISSN: 0924-4247
Project Funding Details:
Funded Project NameProject IDFunding Body
Not SetNot SetUK Department for Trade and Industry
Keywords: wafer bonding; radical; activation; plasma; XPS; surface science; electron spectroscopy; fluorine; silicon
Academic Unit/Department: Mathematics, Computing and Technology > Engineering & Innovation
Mathematics, Computing and Technology
Science > Physical Sciences
Interdisciplinary Research Centre: Centre for Earth, Planetary, Space and Astronomical Research (CEPSAR)
Item ID: 18380
Depositing User: Colin Smith
Date Deposited: 08 Sep 2009 14:47
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2016 21:42
Share this page:


Scopus Citations

Download history for this item

These details should be considered as only a guide to the number of downloads performed manually. Algorithmic methods have been applied in an attempt to remove automated downloads from the displayed statistics but no guarantee can be made as to the accuracy of the figures.

▼ Automated document suggestions from open access sources

Actions (login may be required)

Policies | Disclaimer

© The Open University   + 44 (0)870 333 4340