The Open UniversitySkip to content

Heritability of autistic traits in the general population

Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Verweij, Catharina J. H. and Boomsma, Dorret I. (2007). Heritability of autistic traits in the general population. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 161(4) pp. 372–377.

Full text available as:
PDF (Not Set) - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Download (155kB)
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Link:
Google Scholar: Look up in Google Scholar


Background Recent research has indicated that autism is not a discrete disorder and that family members of autistic probands have an increased likelihood of exhibiting autistic symptoms with a wide range of severity, often below the threshold for a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder.

Objective To examine the distribution and genetic structure of autistic traits in the general population using a newly established quantitative measure of autistic traits, the Social Responsiveness Scale (formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale).

Methods The sample consisted of 788 pairs of twins aged 7 to 15 years, randomly selected from the pool of participants in a large epidemiologic study (the Missouri Twin Study). One parent of each pair of twins completed the Social Responsiveness Scale on each child. The data were subjected to structural equation modeling.

Results Autistic traits as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale were continuously distributed and moderately to highly heritable. Levels of severity of autistic traits at or above the previously published mean for patients with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified were found in 1.4% of boys and 0.3% of girls. Structural equation modeling revealed no evidence for the existence of sex-specific genetic influences, and suggested specific mechanisms by which females may be relatively protected from vulnerability to autistic traits.

Conclusions These data indicate that the social deficits characteristic of autism spectrum disorders are common. Given the continuous distribution of these traits, it may be arbitrary where cutoffs are made between research designations of being "affected" vs "unaffected" with a pervasive developmental disorder. The genes influencing autistic traits appear to be the same for boys and girls. Lower prevalence (and severity) of autistic traits in girls may be the result of increased sensitivity to early environmental influences that operate to promote social competency.

Item Type: Journal Item
Copyright Holders: 2007 AMA
ISSN: 1072-4710
Academic Unit/School: Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) > Life, Health and Chemical Sciences
Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
Item ID: 16160
Depositing User: Rosa Hoekstra
Date Deposited: 06 May 2009 09:40
Last Modified: 02 May 2018 13:00
Share this page:


Altmetrics from Altmetric

Citations from Dimensions

Download history for this item

These details should be considered as only a guide to the number of downloads performed manually. Algorithmic methods have been applied in an attempt to remove automated downloads from the displayed statistics but no guarantee can be made as to the accuracy of the figures.

Actions (login may be required)

Policies | Disclaimer

© The Open University   contact the OU