Piwek, Paul; Masthoff, Judith and Bergenstrahle, Malin
Reference and Gestures in Dialogue Generation: Three Studies with Embodied Conversational Agents.
In: Proceedings of AISB05 Joint Symposium on Virtual Social Agents Symposium, 12 - 15 April 2005, University of Herfordshire, UK.
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This paper reports on three studies into social presence cues which were carried out in the context of the NECA (Net-environment for Embodied Emotional Conversational Agents) project and the EPOCH network. The first study concerns the generation of referring expressions. We adopted an existing algorithm for generating referring expressions such that it could run according to an egocentric and a neutral strategy. In an evaluation study, we found that the two strategies were correlated with the perceived friendliness of the speaker. In the second and the third study, we evaluated the gestures that were generated by the NECA system. In this paper, we briefly summarize the most salient results of these two studies. They concern the effect of gestures on perceived quality of speech and information retention.
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