Technique and system: the spread of Japanese management techniques to developing countries.
World Development, 23(1) pp. 57–71.
In this paper a distinction is drawn between the isolated use of individual Japanese management techniques and their adoption in an integrated package as part of a production system. Although the use of individual techniques does confer significant benefits to innovating firms, it is clear from international experience that the major gains arise from systemic application. The central objective of this paper is to explore whether there are obstacles specific to less-developed countries (LDCs) in the systemic application of Japanese management techniques. The major forces driving the adoption of these new management techniques are reviewed, based upon research in Latin America, India and Zimbabwe. Then three major LDC-specific factors affecting systemic adoption are considered—human resources, interfirm cooperation and management.
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