Bedford, Robin B.; Singh, Udayshanker G.; Walton, Richard I.; Williams, Ruth T. and Davis, Sean A.
Nanoparticulate palladium supported by covalently modified silicas: synthesis, characterisation and application as catalysts for the suzuki coupling of aryl halides.
Chemistry of Materials, 17(4)
We present a study of the use of amine- functionalised, mesoporous silicas as supports for nanoparticulate palladium, and the use of the composite materials as
heterogeneous catalysts for the Suzuki coupling of aryl bromides. Upon modification of the silica, via attachment of N-functionalised aminopropylsilyl ethers to surface silanol groups, only a small reduction in surface area and average pore diameter is observed. The mesoporosity and high surface area are also maintained after introduction of nanoparticulate palladium, as evidenced by the measurement of BET nitrogen sorption isotherms. Electron microscopy shows that the palladium particles are well-dispersed and of typical diameter 3-6 nm. Catalysis was initially tested using the coupling of phenylboronic acid with 4-bromoanisole in the presence of K2CO3 and with toluene as solvent. This revealed that the choice of organic modification has a crucial role in determining the activity and recyclability of the catalyst: optimum behaviour was found for diamine- and triamine-containing systems, while quaternary alkylammonium salts showed poor activities. The optimised catalysts are also active in the coupling of a range of aryl bromides and phenylboronic acids, and after three catalytic runs they show virtually no drop in activity. Upon further cycling, however, and after six catalytic runs, we do observe a drop in activity and this is accompanied by some leaching of palladium, and pore-blocking by reaction products and byproducts.
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